· INTERCONNECTED GLOBAL ISSUES
· CLIMATE CHANGE, NCDS AND SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
· AIR POLLUTION
· FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS
· MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE.
Climate change is debatably the most severe challenge facing our planet during the 21st century. Person meddling with the climate system mainly through the emission of conservatory gases and changes in land use has increased the global and annual mean air temperature at the Earth's surface by approximately 0.8 °C since the 19th century. The spatial and temporal degree of the climate challenge intensely connects it to ethical questions as well. These arise both from the fact that the poorest people on Earth are not considerably contributing to global emissions but may well feel the impacts most harshly and from the long-term commitment to future warming and climate change impacts like sea level or the prejudiced melting of the large ice sheets which will be felt by future generations.
INTERCONNECTED GLOBAL ISSUES:
Notwithstanding the worsening health impacts of climate change, the links flanked by these two areas create as much an occasion as a danger. NCDs split ordinary risk factors, of which air stain, bodily idleness and poor diet are major causes of morbidity and mortality. These three risk factors share some of the same origins and solutions as climate change, diagonally sectors including energy, transport systems, food and agriculture, and production from industry, commerce and workplaces.
CLIMATE CHANGE, NCDS AND SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT:
In September 2015, 193 world leaders committed to achieving seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets to end extreme poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and protect our planet by 2030. Referred to as Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, health, NCDs and climate change feature prominently in this new set of goals. There is a devoted target on NCDs under goal 3 for health, and goal 13 focuses exclusively on climate action.
According to the World Health Organization, air pollution causes 7 million premature deaths annually. Of these, approximately 4 million are attributable to indoor air pollution, due primarily to unclean cook stoves, heating and lighting methods (using solid fuels such as charcoal, wood and crop waste . Around 3 billion people worldwide use unimproved cook stoves , and the resulting smoke inhalation is comparable to smoking two packets of cigarettes daily , significantly increasing the risk of stroke, respiratory diseases, is chaemic heart disease and lung cancer.
Urbanisation has brought with it changes in occupation and ways of life, leading to lower levels of physical activity and higher car use. Physical inactivity causes 3.2 million deaths annually and correlates directly with car ownership, which also contributes to rising emissions. Total global annual passenger transport is set to more than double from from 33 trillion to 74 trillion km from 2000 to 205023. Promoting active transport (i.e. forms of transport which involve physical activity, such as cycling and walking) has the dual benefit of reducing emissions and incorporating exercise into daily routine.
Many scientists believe that the increase in heat waves, episodes of extreme rainfall, and the intensity of hurricanes may be related to climate changes caused by global warming, and that we can expect harsher weather if the warming trend is allowed to continue.
Droughts Rising-Temperatures may increase the number of droughts, which will in turn affect food crops and water availability across the globe. Many scientists are warning that we may already be seeing agricultural problems as a result of global climate change.
Economic Downturn-In addition, recent economic studies warn of the economic consequences of climate change. One warns that they could be as bad, or worse, than the Great Depression of the 1930s.Of course, there continues to be uncertainty about what the exact consequences of global warming will be, but an overwhelming majority of scientists and leaders are warning that since higher global temperatures and sea levels are a virtual certainty, we cannot afford to wait to see exactly what happens. Uncertainty should not be treated as a reason to sit on our hands and hope that the problem resolves itself. Instead, we must roll up our sleeves and take steps to address this problem now.
Meeting the Challenges of Climate Change.
As both the leading producer of greenhouse gas emissions and the world’s most powerful country, the United States has a special responsibility to lead the way in the search for solutions. Fortunately, we have a long tradition of solving big problems and meeting new challenges. It is high time for the American spirit of innovation to be put to work on meeting the challenges of climate change. A final section of this guide suggests a few of the ways that you, as a citizen, can make a difference.
After studying the whole topic we would like to conclude that climate change is a very biggest problem in 21st century. In the recent years there are many type of pollutions which affecting the environment. And it is also considered that ozone layer is 75% damaged by which the rain is very dangerous and gives birth to many diseases. Urbanisation has brought with it changes in occupation and ways of life, leading to lower levels of physical activity and higher car use. Physical inactivity causes 3.2 million deaths annually and correlates directly with car ownership, which also contributes to rising emissions. Total global annual passenger transport is set to more than double from from 33 trillion to 74 trillion km from 2000 to 205023. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution causes 7 million premature deaths annually. Of these, approximately 4 million are attributable to indoor air pollution, due primarily to unclean cook stoves, heating and lighting methods..